palmitic acid

Also known as: nhexadecanoic acid.
Commercial source: animal (cow- or hog-derived) or vegetable.
Used in: baked goods, butter and cheese flavorings.
Definition: A component of fat which is used to make unlike ingredients, such as oil and water, blend together in foods.
Typically Non-Vegetarian

Production information: Witco Corp., one of three largest manufacturers of fatty acids, reports that they do have kosher varieties which are all-vegetable, coming from soya oil, although most of their palmitic acid is animal-derived.

pancreatin

Also known as: pancreatic extract, Hi-Vegi-Lip.
Commercial source: animal (cow- or hog-derived).
Definition: A mixture of enzymes used as a digestive aid.
Non-Vegetarian

pantothenic acid

Also known as: Vitamin B-5, d-pantothenamide.
Commercial source: Typically synthetic.
Exists in: liver, heart, salmon, eggs, yeast, molasses, various grains.
Used in: foods for special dietary use, nutritional supplements.
Definition: A B vitamin which is important in the utilization of carbohydrate and fat.
Typically Vegan

papain

Also known as: Caroid.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: meat tenderizers, beverages, enriched farina.
Definition: an enzyme derived from papaya which breaks down proteins into amino acids
Vegan

paprika

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: spice flavorings for baked goods, condiments, processed meats, salad dressings, sauces, processed cheeses, cured meats, snack foods.
Definition: A red food coloring derived from the pods of dried pepper.
Vegan

paraffin

Commercial source: synthetic.
Used in: chewing gum.
Used on: vegetables.
Definition: A petroleum derivative which is commonly used as a vegetable coating.
Vegan

pepsin

Commercial source: animal (hog- or cow-derived).
Used in: cheese and cheese products, digestive aids.
Definition: An enzyme used to break down proteins.
Non-Vegetarian

phenylalanine

Commercial source: Typically bacterial, fungal, or synthetic.
Exists in: many living organisms.
Used in: aspartame, an artificial sweetener.
Definition: A component of some proteins which may be in dietary supplements.
Typically Vegan

polyacrylomite

Commercial source: synthetic.
Used in: some table sugar.
Definition: A petroleum-derived substance used in the processing of sugar cane.
Vegan

polydextrose

Commercial source: synthetic (typically from vegetable sources).
Used in: frozen desserts, cakes, candy, baked goods, chewing gum.
Definition: A reduced-calorie substance used as a sugar or fat substitute.
Vegan

Production information: Cultor Food Science (previously Pfizer Inc.), the creator and producer of polydextrose, reports that corn is their source of ingredients.

polyethylene

Commercial source: synthetic (typically from vegetable sources).
Used in: chewing gum.
Definition: A synthetic compound which is frequently used as a citrus fruit coating.
Vegan

polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate

See polysorbate 80.

polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate

See polysorbate 60.

polysorbate

Commercial source: Typically a composite of animal, vegetable, and synthetic substances.
Used in: Gelatin products, salad dressings, baked goods, candy, soups, ice cream, nondairy creamer, artificial toppings, chocolate, pickles, spreads, soft drinks.
Examples: Polysorbate 80, polysorbate 60.
Definition: A common class of food additive most frequently used to blend together ingredients, such as oil and water, which normally do not blend well.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

Production information: Stepan Co., a manufacturer of polysorbates, reports that all polysorbates at their plant are from vegetable sources. Lonza Inc., another manufacturer, reports that their kosher polysorbates are from vegetable oils and their non-kosher poly-sorbates may be from animal fats. PPG Industries, Inc., which also produces polysorbates, reports that their kosher polysorbates are of vegetable origin.

polysorbate 60

Also known as: polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate.
Commercial source: Typically a composite of animal, vegetable, and synthetic substances.
Used in: powdered processed foods, beverage mixes, chocolate coatings, frozen desserts, cakes, dry mixes, doughnuts, artificial chocolate coatings, nondairy whipped cream and creamers, salad dressings not containing egg yolks, vitamin supplements.
Definition: A common food additive used to blend together ingredients, such as oil and water, which normally do not blend well.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

Production information: PPG Industries Inc. and Stepan Co., two manufacturers of polysorbate 60, report that they both use vegetable sources.

polysorbate 80

Also known as: polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate.
Commercial source: Typically a composite of animal, vegetable, and synthetic substances.
Used in: nondairy whipped cream, nondairy coffee creamers, baked goods, ice cream, frozen custard, shortening, vitamin and mineral supplements.
Definition: A common additive used to blend ingredients, such as oil and water, which normally do not blend well.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

Production information: PPG Industries Inc. and Stepan Co., two manufacturers of polysorbate 80, report that all of their polysorbate 80 is of vegetable origin.

potassium acid tartrate

See cream of tartar.

potassium bitartrate

See cream of tartar.

potassium hydrogen tartrate

See cream of tartar.

potassium sorbate

Also known as: sorbic acid potassium salt.
Commercial source: mineral-synthetic.
Used in: cheeses, bread, beverages, margarine, dry sausage, fish, dried fruits, margarine, sherbet, maraschino cherries, tomato juice, pre-peeled carrots, wax cucumbers, chocolate, fresh fruit cocktail, macaroni salads, cheesecake, pie fillings, artificially sweetened jellies and preserves.
Definition: A common yeast and mold inhibitor in many foods.
Vegan

preservative

Also known as: antimicrobial agent, antispoilant.
Commercial source: mineral-synthetic.
Examples: sodium benzoate, calcium propionate, potassium sorbate.
Definition: The general name for additives used to reduce food spoilage.
Typically Vegan

processing aid

Commercial source: animal (egg, milk, or cow- or hog-derived), vegetable, mineral, synthetic.
Used in: sugar, wine, juice, beer.
Examples: charcoal, papain, gelatin, cow bone filter.
Definition: Anything added to food ingredients or foods during processing, and completely (or mostly) removed before being sold. A processing aid is commonly used to aid filtration or remove unwanted color/flavor.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

propanoic acid

See propionic acid.

propionic acid

Also known as: propanoic acid.
Commercial source: synthetic.
Exists in: some fruits, flowers, Swiss cheese.
Used in: butter, cheese, and fruit flavorings. Also used in some or all of the following: beverages, ice cream, confections, baked goods.
Definition: A very common food preservative which is typically found in bread products and cheese.
Vegan

propylene glycol

Also known as: 1,2-propanediol.
Commercial source: synthetic.
Used in: confections, chocolate products, ice cream emulsifiers, shredded coconut, beverages, baked goods, toppings, spices, icings, meat products.
Definition: A common food additive which is often used in the manufacture of many ingredients.
Vegan

Production information: Archer Daniels Midland Co. is conducting research on the production of this compound from sorbitol, derived from corn.

protease

Commercial source: animal, vegetable, bacterial, fungal. Certain proteases have typical sources. See entries for the examples for more details.
Examples: rennin, pepsin, trypsin, papain, bromelain, lactase.
Used in: meat tenderizers, sausage curing, dough conditioning, beer.
Definition: A general name for all enzymes which break down proteins.
Typically Vegetarian

protein

Commercial source: animal or vegetable.
Exists in: all living things.
Used in: dietary supplements, processed foods.
Definition: A major class of nutrients composed of amino acids.
May Be Vegetarian

pyridoxine

Also known as: vitamin B-6, vitamin B-6 hydrochloride, pyridoxine hydrochloride, pyridoxol hydrochloride, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine.
Commercial source: synthetic.
Exists in: rice, yeast, bran, liver, cereals.
Used in: baked goods, beverages and beverage bases, cereals, dairy products, meat products, snack foods, baby food.
Definition: A B vitamin which is necessary for the normal utilization of foods.
Typically Vegan

Production information: Schiff Products Inc., a manufacturer of pyridoxine, reports that their method is synthetic.