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gelatin

Commercial source: animal (cow- or hog-derived).
Used in: Puddings, yogurt, ham coatings, marshmallows, sour cream, frozen desserts, cheese spreads, soft drinks, pill capsules, wine and juice.
Definition: An animal protein used especially for its thickening and gelling properties.
Non-Vegetarian

Product information: “Vegetable gelatins,” which are not gelatin at all, are vegetable or synthetic substances that mimic some of the properties of gelatin. According to an employee at Vyse Gelatin Co., soft gel capsules usually contain a mixture of pig- and beef-derived gelatin. Pig-derived gelatin is certified kosher by some kosher agencies.

glucose

See dextrose.

glutamic acid

Commercial source: Typically vegetable.
Exists in: living organisms.
Used in: processed foods, beer.
Definition: An amino acid used primarily as a flavor enhancer.
Typically Vegetarian

gelatin

Commercial source: animal (cow- or hog-derived).
Used in: Puddings, yogurt, ham coatings, marshmallows, sour cream, frozen desserts, cheese spreads, soft drinks, pill capsules, wine and juice.
Definition: An animal protein used especially for its thickening and gelling properties.
Non-Vegetarian

Product information: “Vegetable gelatins,” which are not gelatin at all, are vegetable or synthetic substances that mimic some of the properties of gelatin. According to an employee at Vyse Gelatin Co., soft gel capsules usually contain a mixture of pig- and beef-derived gelatin. Pig-derived gelatin is certified kosher by some kosher agencies.

gluten

See wheat gluten, corn gluten.

glyceride

Commercial source: vegetable, synthetic, or animal (cow- or hog-derived).
Used in: bakery products, beverages, ice cream, chewing gum, peanut butter, shortening, chocolate, whipped toppings, candy, frozen desserts, jelly, and margarine.
Definition: A common food additive used principally to blend together, and keep together, ingredients which normally do not mix well, such as oil and water.
Typically Vegan

Product information: Employees of Riken Vitamin (in 2007) and Caravan Ingredients (in 2009) told us that almost all glycerides today (both mono- and diglycerides) are produced from vegetable sources although some are sourced from animal fats. The most common sources are soybean oil and palm oil. Most companies surveyed use vegetable sources to manufacture the majority (over 80%) of glycerides in human foods. Animal sources are often used for industrial and pet food applications but some may be used to make human foods. Employees at Caravan Ingredients told us that their kosher-certified glycerides are all-vegetable. In the case of synthetic glycerides, glycerin (often from vegetable sources) is a common starting material.

glycerin

See glycerol.

glycerine

See glycerol.

glycerol

Also known as: glycerine or glycerin.
Commercial source: vegetable, synthetic, animal (cow- or hog-derived).
Used in: marshmallows, candy, confections, gelatin desserts, soft drinks, some meat products, and baked goods.
Definition: Glycerol is most often used as a component to make glycerides. It helps to extend shelf-life by retaining moisture.
Typically Vegan

Product information: The Director of Sales in glycerol at Cargill, a major manufacturer of glycerol, told us that they use only soybean oil. Dow Chemical Co. reports that its synthetic glycerol has propylene (a petrochemical) as one of its starting materials.

glycine

Commercial source: Typically vegetable.
Exists in: living organisms.
Used as: sweetener, dietary supplement, antacid.
Definition: An amino acid which is needed by humans and produced by the body.
Typically Vegetarian

gluten

See wheat gluten, corn gluten.

glyceride

Commercial source: vegetable, synthetic, or animal (cow- or hog-derived).
Used in: bakery products, beverages, ice cream, chewing gum, peanut butter, shortening, chocolate, whipped toppings, candy, frozen desserts, jelly, and margarine.
Definition: A common food additive used principally to blend together, and keep together, ingredients which normally do not mix well, such as oil and water.
Typically Vegan

Product information: Employees of Riken Vitamin and Caravan Ingredients  told me that almost all glycerides today (both mono- and diglycerides) are produced from vegetable sources although some are sourced from animal fats. The most common sources are soybean oil and palm oil. Most companies surveyed use vegetable sources to manufacture the majority (over 80%) of glycerides in human foods. Animal sources are often used for industrial and pet food applications but some may be used to make human foods. Employees at Caravan Ingredients told me that their kosher-certified glycerides are all-vegetable. In the case of synthetic glycerides, glycerin (often from vegetable sources) is a common starting material.

glycerin

See glycerol.

glycerine

See glycerol.

glycerol

Also known as: glycerine or glycerin.
Commercial source: vegetable, synthetic, animal (cow- or hog-derived).
Used in: marshmallows, candy, confections, gelatin desserts, soft drinks, some meat products, and baked goods.
Definition: Glycerol is most often used as a component to make glycerides. It helps to extend shelf-life by retaining moisture.
Typically Vegan

Product information: The Director of Sales in glycerol at Cargill, a major manufacturer of glycerol, told me that they use only soybean oil. Dow Chemical Co. reports that its synthetic glycerol has propylene (a petrochemical) as one of its starting materials.

guar gum

Also known as: guaran, guar flour.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: ice cream, baked goods, sauces, beverages, pudding, salad dressing, frozen fruit, artificial toppings, processed meats, cheese spreads, dry mixes, soy milk.
Definition: A common and versatile vegetable gum often used to thicken products.
Vegan

gypsum

See calcium sulfate. 

gypsum

See calcium sulfate.

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