Crystals of the food additive monosodium gluta...

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Commercial source: vegetable or animal (cow- or hog-derived).
Exists in: many foods, especially eggs, dairy, meat, nuts and seeds, and synthetic form.
Examples: lard, tallow, palm oil, soybean oil, cocoa butter.
Definition: One of the three classes of nutrients necessary for human health.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

fatty acid

Commercial source: animal (cow- or hog-derived), vegetable, or synthetic.
Exists in: many foods, especially oils.
Examples: palmitic acid, stearic acid.
Definition: A major component of fats.
May Be Non-Vegetarian


Used in: the commercial manufacture of many food ingredients, such as lactic and citric acids, and ethyl alcohol.
Definition: A chemical breakdown of carbohydrates through the action of bacteria, molds, and yeasts.

fermentation aid

Also known as: malting aid.
Commercial source: vegetable, animal (milk-derived sugar or protein), mineral, or synthetic. The sugar may have been processed through a cow bone filter.
Examples: calcium phosphate, potassium bromate, malt, sugar.
Definition: An additive which promotes fermentation.
Typically Vegetarian

fining agent

See clarifying agent.

firming agent

Commercial source: Typically mineral.
Examples: calcium salts, aluminum sulfate.
Definition: A firming agent is a type of additive which produces desirable crispness or texture in foods, such as cut fruits and vegetables.
Typically Vegan

flavor enhancer

Commercial source: animal (meat or fish extract), or vegetable.
Examples: soy sauce, monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate.
Definition: An additive which makes foods more flavorful, but which has little or no flavor of its own.
Typically Vegetarian

foaming agent

Also known as: whipping agent.
Commercial source: Typically animal (dairy)-mineral.
Examples: sodium caseinate.
Definition: An additive used to make foods foam or to maintain foamy peaks.
Typically Vegetarian

folic acid

Also known as: folacin, pteroyl glutamic acid.
Commercial source: Typically fungal or synthetic; may be animal- or vegetable-derived.
Exists in: liver, yeast, mushrooms, green leafy vegetables.
Used in: enriched foods such as flour, baked goods, rice, and macaroni.
Definition: A member of the B-vitamin complex which aids in the formation of red blood cells and is essential in normal metabolism.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

Production information: Schiff Products Inc., a manufacturer of folic acid, reports that its folic acid is derived from either liver or yeast extract.


Also known as: levulose, fruit sugar, natural sugar.
Commercial source: Typically vegetable, (possibly sugar filtered through a cow bone filter); or animal (insect).
Exists in: many fruits, honey.
Used in: baked goods, beverages, ice cream.
Definition: A sweetener usually derived from corn, sugar beets, or sugar cane.
Typically Vegetarian

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