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calcium carbonate

Commercial source: mineral.
Used in: ice cream, cream syrup, confections, bread, baking powder, antacid tablets, vitamin supplements, toothpaste, wine.
Definition: A substance which is used to make acidic foods less acidic.
Vegan 

calcium caseinate

Commercial source: mineral-animal.
Used in: imitation cheese, creamed cottage cheese, diet foods and beverages, frozen desserts, vegetable whipped toppings.
Definition: An additive which is used as a source of protein and as a replacement for sodium caseinate in low-sodium foods.
Vegetarian 

calcium pantothenate

See pantothenic acid. 

calcium phosphate

Also known as: calcium phosphate monobasic, monocalcium phosphate, calcium biphosphate, acid calcium phosphate. (The previous four refer to the same form of calcium phosphate). Calcium phosphate dibasic, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate. (The previous two refer to a second form of calcium phosphate). Calcium phosphate tribasic, tricalcium phosphate, precipitated calcium phosphate. (The previous two refer to a third form of calcium phosphate).
Commercial source: mineral.
Used in: table salt, powdered sugar, malted milk powder, condiments, puddings, meat, dry-curing mixtures, cereal flours, baked goods, dental powders, artificially sweetened fruit jelly, canned vegetables, baking powder.
Definition: A common food additive which serves several functions such as regulating acidity in foods. Calcium phosphate is also used as a nutritional supplement.
Vegan 

calcium propionate

Also known as: propanoic acid, calcium salt.
Commercial source: mineral-synthetic.
Used in: baked goods, stuffing, processed cheese, chocolate products, cakes, pie fillings, artificially sweetened fruit jelly.
Definition: A preservative which is effective against mold, slightly effective against bacteria, but not effective against yeast.
Vegan 

calcium stearate

Commercial source: mineral-vegetable, mineral-animal (cow- or hog-derived).
Used in: garlic salt, dry molasses, vanilla, vanillin powder, salad dressing mix, meat tenderizers.
Definition: An additive which helps make ingredients blend well together. It also may function as an additive which prevents dry ingredients from sticking together.
May Be Non-Vegetarian 

calcium sulfate

Also known as: calcium sulfate anhydrous, plaster of Paris.
Commercial source: mineral.
Used in: baking powder, canned vegetables, baked goods, dessert items, cereal flours, sherry, cheese, toothpaste.
Definition: A common food additive with many purposes such as acting as a firming or jelling agent.
Vegan 

candelilla wax

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used on: vegetables and fruits.
Used in: chewing gum.
Definition: A wax derived from certain plants and used as a produce coating.
Vegan 

cane sugar

Also known as: sugar, sucrose, white sugar, brown sugar.
Commercial source: vegetable. An animal (cow bone) filter is often used in its processing.
Used in: processed foods, fast foods, breakfast cereals, desserts.
Definition: A natural sugar stored in the cane stalk and used as a sweetening agent, flavor enhancer, or preservative.
May Be Non-Vegetarian 

Product information: The largest cane sugar companies today, Florida Crystals and Imperial/ Savannah, use bone char to process almost all of their sugar. Some types (evaporated cane juice, turbinado, demerera, muscovado, Jack FrostTM brand, SucanatTM, and USDA Certified Organic Sugar) are not processed with bone char. 

capric acid

Also known as: n-decanoic acid.
Commercial source: vegetable or animal.
Exists in: many plants and animals.
Used in: butter, coconut, fruit, liquor, and artificial fruit flavors for the following: beverages, ice cream, candy, baked goods, chewing gum, desserts.
Definition: A component of some fats used to make synthetic flavorings.
May Be Non-Vegetarian 

caproic acid

Also known as: n-hexanoic acid.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Exists in: many plants and animals, and in synthetic form.
Used in: butter, butterscotch, chocolate, berries, tea, and the following flavorings: butter, butterscotch, fruit, rum, and cheese.
Definition: A component of some fats which is used to make synthetic flavorings.
Typically Vegetarian 

caprylic acid

Also known as: n-octanoic acid.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Exists in: many plants and animals, and in synthetic form.
Used in: baked goods, soft candies, cheese, desserts, gelatins, meat products, oils, packaging materials, snack foods, and synthetic flavorings.
Definition: A component of some fats used as a food additive, especially as a preservative.
Typically Vegetarian 

caramel colour

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: soft drinks, baked goods, candy, ice cream, and meats to impart a brown color; beverages, ice cream, candy, baked goods, syrups, and meats as a flavoring.
Definition: A common food coloring and flavoring which is usually derived from corn.
Vegan 

Product information: Sethness Products Co., the world’s largest caramel colour producer, uses no animal-derived components in its manufacture of caramel color. Universal Flavors, another caramel colour company, also said that they use no animal-derived ingredients in their product. 

carbohydrate

Commercial source: vegetable or animal (insect).
Exists in: whole grains, vegetables, legumes, root vegetables, fruits, honey, and refined sugar.
Examples: glucose, cornstarch.
Definition: An important class of nutrients and a basic source of energy.
Vegetarian 

  

carmineCommercial source: animal (insect).
Used in: confections, juices, “New Age” beverages, pharmaceuticals, dairy products, baked goods, yogurt, ice cream, fruit fillings, puddings.
Definition: A food coloring derived from the dried bodies of female beetles.
Non-Vegetarian 

carminic acid

See carmine, cochineal. 

carnauba wax

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used on: candy, fruits.
Definition: A common produce coating which is derived from a South American plant.
Vegan 

carotene

See beta-carotene. 

carotenoid

Commercial source: vegetable or synthetic.
Exists in: many plants and animals.
Used in: dairy products, margarine, shortening.
Definition: A general term for a large class of compounds used as food coloring.
Typically Vegetarian 

Product information: Henkel Corp., a large manufacturer of carotenoids, uses the algae D. selina as its source 

carrageenan

Also known as: Chondrus extract, Irish moss.
Commercial source: vegetable
Used in: dairy foods, pie fillings, chocolate products, salad dressings, confections, evaporated milk, infant formula, instant breakfasts.
Definition: A seaweed product which is a common jelling agent.
Vegan 

casein

Commercial source: animal (milk).
Used in: cereals, breads, imitation cheeses, ice cream, fruit sherbets, special diet preparations.
Definition: The principal protein in milk.
Vegetarian 

Product information: Because of its cost-prohibitive nature, casein is not produced in the United States. Most of the U.S. supply comes from New Zealand, Ireland, and European countries. 

cellulose gum

Also known as: CMC, carboxymethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose.
Commercial source: vegetable-synthetic.
Used in: ice cream, frozen desserts, syrups, acidified milk beverages, baked goods, puddings, sauces, tortilla products.
Definition: A chemically modified form of cellulose (the principal component of plant cells) used to prevent ice crystallization in foods.
Vegan 

charcoal

Also known as: activated charcoal.
Commercial source: vegetable or synthetic.
Used in: poison antidotes, medicinal aids.
Definition: A porous material made from coal or wood which is used to relieve diarrhea and intestinal discomfort as well as to counteract poisons.
Vegan

chelating agent

See sequestering agent.

citric acid

Commercial source: vegetable, bacterial, fungal, or mold.
Exists in: citrus fruits, coffee.
Used in: beverages, canned fruit and vegetables, cheese, candy, mayonnaise, instant potatoes, canned meat, wine, salad dressing, crackers, ice cream, baked goods, chewing gum.
Definition: A common food additive used as a flavoring or preservative, among many other uses.
Vegan

Product information: Archer Daniels Midland Co., a manufacturer of citric acid, reports that they use hydrolyzed cornstarch and molasses as the carbohydrate sources to produce citric acid by microbial fermentation. Cargill, Inc., another manufacturer, reports using corn-derived dextrose.

clarifying agent

Also known as: fining agent, clarifier.
Commercial source: animal (egg, milk, gelatin, fish bladder protein known as isinglass) or mineral.
Used in: wine, vinegar, soft drinks, beer, fruit juice.
Definition: A substance used to filter small particles out of liquids in order to make the liquids clear.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

cochineal

Commercial source: animal (insect).
Used in: confections, juices, “New Age” beverages, yogurt, ice cream, fruit fillings, puddings.
Definition: A coloring derived from the dried bodies of female beetles.
Non-Vegetarian

cocoa butter

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: candies and confections.
Definition: The fat obtained from cocoa beans and used most often as a candy coating.
Vegan

coenzyme

Commercial source: Typically bacterial, fungal, or synthetic.
Exists in: living organisms
Examples: All of the B vitamins.
Definition: A small molecule which activates an enzyme when combined with it.
Typically Vegetarian

color

Commercial source: synthetic.
Exists in: living organisms, minerals, and synthetic substances.
Also known as: coloring adjunct, color stabilizer, color fixative, or color-retention agent.
Used in: beverages, confections, dry mixes, processed foods.
Examples: FD&C Red No. 3, beta-carotene, iron oxide, beet powder, grape skin extract, riboflavin, caramel, turmeric, carmine, cochineal.
Definition: A food additive used principally to make food look pleasing.
Typically Vegetarian

corn gluten

Also known as: corn gluten meal.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: specialty foods.
Definition: A protein derived from corn and sometimes used by people who are allergic to other grains.
Vegan

cream of tartar

Also known as: potassium acid tartrate, potassium hydrogen tartrate, potassium bitartrate.
Commercial source: Typically vegetable-mineral.
Exists in: synthetic form.
Used in: baked goods, crackers, candy, puddings, processed foods, carbonated beverages.
Definition: A thickening or leavening agent usually extracted from wine sediments.
Vegan

curing agent

Also known as: pickling agent.
Commercial source: Typically mineral.
Used in: processed meats, canned meats.
Examples: sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite.
Definition: A food additive which preserves meats.
Typically Vegetarian

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cysteine/cystine

See L-cysteine/L-cystine. 

curing agent

Also known as: pickling agent.
Commercial source: Typically mineral.
Used in: processed meats, canned meats.
Examples: sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite.
Definition: A food additive which preserves meats.
Typically Vegetarian

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cysteine/cystine

See L-cysteine/L-cystine.