Sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydrogencarbonate, ...

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baking powder

Commercial source: mineral-vegetable.
Used in: baked goods.
Definition: A powder used as a yeast substitute in baking.

baking soda

See sodium bicarbonate.


Commercial source: animal (insect).
Used in: confections, chewing gum, fruit and honey flavorings for beverages, ice cream, baked goods, and honey.
Definition: A bee secretion used to form the beehive and used as a sweetener.

beet sugar

See refined beet sugar


Commercial source: mineral.
Used in: wine, vinegar.
Definition: A type of clay used as a filter to make liquids clear.

benzoyl peroxide

Commercial source: synthetic-mineral.
Used in: flour, blue cheese, Gorgonzola cheese, oil, fat, milk, styrofoam cups.
Definition: A food additive with several non-food uses as well (in fiberglass, cosmetics).


Also known as: Provitamin A.
Commercial source: primarily vegetable or synthetic.
Exists in: many animals, in egg yolk, in many fruits and vegetables, especially orange and yellow ones.
Used in: ice cream, cheese, other dairy products, beverages, cereals, vegetable oils, confections, rice.
Definition: A common food colorant which prevents oxygen from changing a food’s color or flavor.
Typically Vegetarian


See butylated hydroxyanisole.


See butylated hydroxytoluene.


Also known as: hesperidin, rutin, vitamin P complex.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Definition: Natural substances which help maintain cardiovascular health and are commonly found in citrus fruits.
Typically Vegan


Also known as: vitamin B factor.
Commercial source: Typically bacterial.
Exists in: liver, kidney, molasses, yeast, milk, egg yolk, nuts, vegetables, grains.
Used as: food fortifier, dietary supplement.
Definition: B vitamin which is necessary for human health.
Typically Vegetarian

brewer’s yeast

Commercial source: fungal.
Used in: nutritional supplements.
Definition: A yeast product which is rich in vitamins, especially B vitamins.


Also known as: bromelin.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used as: tenderizer.
Definition: An enzyme extracted from pineapple.

butylated hydroxyanisole

Also known as: BHA.
Commercial source: synthetic.
Used in: cereals, vegetable oil, confectionary products, rice, beverages, ice cream, baked goods, chewing gum, gelatin desserts, potato flakes, dry yeast, dry mixes, lard, shortening, unsmoked dry sausage.
Definition: A common food additive which prevents foods from changing their color or flavor.

butylated hydroxytoluene

Also known as: BHT.
Commercial source: synthetic.
Used in: chewing gum base, potato flakes, dry breakfast cereals, shortenings, enriched rice.
Definition: A common food additive which keeps food from changing their color or flavor.

butyric acid

Also known as: n-butyric acid, butanoic acid.
Commercial source: synthetic or vegetable.
Exists in: several fruits and vegetables such as apples and strawberries, butter.
Used in: artificial flavorings (including butter, butterscotch, caramel, fruit, cheese, and nut flavorings), ice cream, candy, baked goods, puddings, chewing gum, margarine, soy-milk type drinks.
Definition: A preservative which is commonly used as a starting material in the manufacture of other food ingredients.

Product information: Penta Manufacturing Co., a manufacturer of this ingredient, reports that butyric acid is produced through a fermentation process. Hoechst Celanese Chemical Group, another manufacturer, reports that their method of producing butyric acid is synthetic, starting with petrochemicals